The North had about 101,000 factories in 1860, compared to the South’s 21,000. The border states had 9,000.
There were just over 1.1 million factory workers in the Northern factories, while the South had just ten percent of that; 111,000 factory workers. 70,000 factory workers lived in the border states.
There was 20,000 miles of railroad in the North and 9,000 in the South.
The four largest-revenue producing northern railroads on average operated 80% more track miles and generated 80% more revenue per mile than the four largest southern railroads in 1860. Railroads of the Civil War, Clark, p. 12.
Source: National Park Service (InfoGraphic only)