“During the Civil War the typical infantry weapon on both sides was a 9 1/ 4-1b., muzzle-loaded, rifled-musket. Loading procedure required the soldier to withdraw a paper cartridge (containing powder and bullet) from his cartridge box, tear open one end with his teeth, pour the powder into the muzzle, place the bullet in the muzzle and ram it to the breech using a metal ramrod. A copper percussion cap was then placed on a hollow cone at the breech. To fire the weapon the hammer was cocked, and when the trigger was pulled the hammer struck the cap and ignited the powder charge. Each soldier was expected to be capable of loading and firing three aimed shots per minute. With the beginning of the Civil War a shortage of rifled-muskets on both sides forced the Northern and Southern governments to issue older smooth-bore weapons, or purchase weapons from European nations, the English Enfield, caliber. 577, being the most popular. As the war progressed most soldiers were armed with rifled-muskets, although as late as the battle of Gettysburg some troops on both sides still carried smooth-bores.”
Ballard, Ted; Arthur, Billy (2014-07-16). Chancellorsville Staff Ride: Briefing Book [Illustrated Edition] (Kindle Locations 1120-1128). Pickle Partners Publishing. Kindle Edition.